Currently, the subject of food supplements is becoming a topic of great interest to both the general population and health professionals. To this end, future pharmacists need to know all the aspects related to this category of products, which abound in community pharmacies, which are sometimes required without being recommended by health professionals.
This course will alert you to the misuse of dietary supplements and will answer the following questions:
- What are dietary supplements?
- How to focus on the wide variety of supplements on the market?
- Quality of food supplements: regulations, requirements, research, certifications.
- Counterfeit and adulterated food supplements.
- What benefits can dietary supplements bring?
- What are the risks of food supplements?
- Who especially needs the administration of supplements?
Murphy's law is a popular adage that states that "things will go wrong in any given situation, if you give them a chance," or more commonly, "whatever can go wrong, will go wrong." A number of variants on the rule have been formulated, as have several corollaries.
It’s popularly known as the lateral thickening of the bone that is articulated with the first toe.
Also known as hallux valgus
The bunion is a deformity that affects the first phalangeal metatarsal joint of the foot.
It’s a deviation of the first metatarsal and the first toe. There are different degrees of deformity, hence some patients have a little deviation and others have more visual deformity.
Many people don’t know which is the truly pathology, thinking that only what is worrying is what it’s seen, the bulge in the bone, but the real problem it’s just the opposite, what’s not seen, the state of the joint and the degree of mobility of the first finger.
Advances in 3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, are capturing attention in the health care field because of their potential to improve treatment for certain medical conditions. A radiologist, for instance, might create an exact replica of a patient’s spine to help plan a surgery; a dentist could scan a broken tooth to make a crown that fits precisely into the patient’s mouth. In both instances, the doctors can use 3D printing to make products that specifically match a patient’s anatomy.
And the technology is not limited to planning surgeries or producing customized dental restorations such as crowns; 3D printing has enabled the production of customized prosthetic limbs, cranial implants, or orthopedic implants such as hips and knees. At the same time, its potential to change the manufacturing of medical products—particularly high-risk devices such as implants—could affect patient safety, creating new challenges for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight.
Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited.
The esthetic component is critical for the successful outcome and patients’ satisfaction regarding the implant-prosthetic therapy. The esthetic outcome success depends mostly on the optimization of the algorithms specific to the pro-implant and implant stage as well as to the designing and technological execution of the future prosthetic restoration. A proper planning of optimal facial esthetics must involve a multidisciplinary approach with inclusion of periodontists, orthodontists, oral surgeons and implantology specialists. The dental practitioner must consider various factors that influence the esthetic outcome (tooth position, root position of the adjacent teeth, biotype of the periodontium, tooth shape, smile line, implant site anatomy, implant positioning). Also, some factors (anatomical limits of the implant site, periodontal status, occlusal parameters), which can alter the final esthetic result, must be assessed prior to planning the esthetic parameters of the future prosthetic restoration. The esthetic outcome can be improved by using new digital technologies based on software applications for assessment of clinical and biological indices of the prosthetic field, virtual planning of implants positioning and design projection of future prosthetic restoration.
The maxillary canine is the second most common tooth affected by impaction after the third molar, with a prevalence of 1%–3%.1–3 The etiology of maxillary canine impaction is still under discussion. Although numerous possible factors are under assessment, it is certain that the buccally displaced canine (BDC) and the palatally displaced canine (PDC) are characterized by different etiopathogeneses.4
A BDC is thought to be a result of crowding, ie, insufficient space in the maxilla for the eruption of the maxillary canine culminates in its impaction. On the other hand, a PDC often occurs in patients without crowding; indeed, in many cases there is an excess of space in the canine area. It has therefore emerged that the etiology of PDCs is still unclear. Some authors believe that the absence of lateral incisor guidance (guidance theory) could lead to palatal canine impaction by allowing the canine to cross back from the buccal to the palatal side. An association between maxillary lateral incisor anomalies and PDCs was demonstrated; moreover, an association with a smaller mesiodistal crown width and shorter roots of the maxillary lateral incisor was reported. In spite of these considerations, a great number of studies suggested the “genetic theory” of PDCs: given the simultaneous occurrence of PDCs and congenital dental anomalies, these authors believed that a PDC was only one aspect of a general dental eruption disorder that could be genetic in origin.
A dental extraction (also referred to as tooth extraction, odontotomy or informally, tooth pulling) is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus in the alveolar bone. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, but most commonly to remove teeth which have become unrestorable through tooth decay, periodontal disease, or dental trauma, especially when they are associated with toothache. Sometimes impacted wisdom cause recurrent infections of the gum and may be removed when other conservative treatments have failed (cleaning, antibiotics and operculectomy). In orthodontics, if the teeth are crowded, healthy teeth may be extracted (often bicuspids) to create space so the rest of the teeth can be straightened. Extractions are often categorized as "simple" or "surgical" or “typical” and “atypical” Typical extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually with the patient under local anesthetic. Atypical extractions involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed or removed via simple extraction, for example because they have broken under the gum or because they have not erupted fully, such as an impacted wisdom tooth. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. And frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal. Each of these extractions have their own approach and we are pleased to have Dr. Gabriela Motelica tell us more about the most common techniques for odontotomy.
Dental implantation is a well-documented treatment of partial or full adentia. Success indications of total rehabilitation with dental implants are high and directly depend on preoperative planning. Modern CAD/CAM technologies give maximally accurate choice of size and position of dental implants and furthermore allow precise placement according to preoperative planning. However, the choice of cement or screw fixation of prosthetic construction is still a subject of discussion One of the significant problems of full-arch implant-supported prosthesis is to reach the passive fitting. Perfect passive fit is achieved when the opposing surfaces of the implants and the framework intaglio are in maximal spatial congruency, without strains in the components after tightening of all screws, provided the implant and framework surfaces are fabricated perfectly plain. Screw retaining from bone level platform may not secure the passive fitting of construction. Moreover, at this type of fixation, complications may vary from a fracture of various components in implant suprastructure system to an implant fracture or failure of its osseointegration . On the other side, cement retaining can provide passive fitting due to cement space between the abutment and prosthesis, but this type of fixation may provide other complications like the absence of maintenance service possibility and risk of peri-implantitis development because of excess cement in the peri-implant area, more specifically in soft tissues . In this regard, the use of multiunit abutment system is an option for making screw-retained implant-supported prosthetic constructions. The multiunit abutments provide absolutely passive fitting of prosthesis even with significant divergence of placed implant axes. Furthermore, intraoperative multiunit abutment placement protects peri-implant soft tissues from damaging by multiple screwing/unscrewing implant suprastructures, because all manipulations will happen above the bone level and implant platform. This clinical case shows predictable treatment protocol of full-arch implant-supported rehabilitation using guided surgery, intraoperative multiunit abutment choosing, immediate loading, and final prosthetics.
he number of foot and ankle arthrodesis procedures performed in the United States has been rapidly increasing. These procedures include ankle arthrodesis to induce fusion between the tibia and talus, double arthrodesis of the hindfoot to fuse the talonavicular and subtalar joints while sparing the calcaneocuboid , tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis to fuse the ankle and hind foot, and modified Lapidus to correct hypermobility of the first tarsal-metatarsal joint (TMJ). The goal of these procedures is to correct arthritis, instability, poor alignment, and pain, which can be debilitating. Arthrodesis has generally shown to improve function and quality of life with excellent patient satisfaction, but continuing complications warrant the need for continued research into improved approaches. A major complication of hind foot or ankle fusions includes delayed union which extends the time patients spend being non-weight bearing, immobilized, and off-work for jobs requiring standing. Non-union in hind foot or ankle situations can lead to revision surgery to obtain fusion. This frequently requires removal of prior hardware, use of much more extensive incisions or dissection and internal fixation, permanent bracing or gait aide use, and a potentially longer time to achieve union than often required by primary fusion . Any delay in union can lead to excessive motion about the fusion site causing bone erosion and loss as well as sclerosis making further surgery very difficult and unpredictable. Finally, delayed or non-union increases the cost of medical care by requiring re-operation (e.g., increased financial cost associated with the surgery, anesthesia time, operating room product costs) and time off work (e.g., social time lost, work income/vacation/ sick leave time lost).
Prof. Covic began his clinical and research work as a colleague in Nephrology in Manchester and Amiens. He later conducted clinical research at Case Western University in Cleveland, Ohio. He received a doctorate in: "Cardiovascular abnormalities and determinants of chronic renal failure" in 1997. Since 2007, he is FRCP (London) and became a member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences in 2009 and in 2018 FRCP (Edin.). He is also a colleague of ERA EDTA (FERA) and a colleague of the European Society of Cardiology (FESC).
Prof. Covic is a professor of nephrology and internal medicine at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Grigore T. Popa", director of the Center for Clinical Nephrology and Dialysis and Transplant in Iasi, Romania. In the past, he held the position of President of the Romanian Society of Nephrology and Treasurer of ERA-EDTA, published over 450 original and peer-reviewed papers in peer-reviewed journals, 16 books and 22 chapters, the current Hirsch Index is 48.
He is the Editor-in-Chief (Nephrology) for the International Journal of Urology and Nephrology and the editor / reviewer for several prestigious journals. Prof. Covic is vice-rector (research) of the University of Medicine „Gr. T. POPA ”Iași, Romania and member of the board of directors of the working groups KDIGO, ERBP and ERA-EDTA - EURECAM and EUDIAL, organized several European regional educational courses under the auspices of ERA EDTA and ISN. For a term, he was President of ISN / COMGAN Eastern Europe.
His main areas of interest are: cardiovascular complications in kidney disease, CKD-MBD, renal anemia, peritoneal dialysis and acute renal failure. Knowing how important it is to have a clinic where you can be treated well, with respect and love, benefiting from all the attention and experience of top doctors and state-of-the-art equipment, he founded Almedra together with other colleagues of the same caliber and the same care for the patient.
Lung cancer is treated in several ways, depending on the type of lung cancer and how far it has spread. People with non-small cell lung cancer can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. People with small cell lung cancer are usually treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
- Surgery. An operation where doctors cut out cancer tissue.
- Chemotherapy. Using special medicines to shrink or kill the cancer. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given in your veins, or sometimes both.
- Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer.
- Targeted therapy. Using drugs to block the growth and spread of cancer cells. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given in your veins. You will get tests to see if targeted therapy is right for your cancer type before this treatment is used.
Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in outer space whereas astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health. Both these sciences work together to ensure that astronauts work in a safe environment. The main objective is to discover how well and for how long people can survive the extreme conditions in space, and how fast they can adapt to the Earth's environment after returning from their voyage. Medical consequences such as possible blindness and bone loss have been associated with human spaceflight
Antimicrobials, such as antibiotics, are substances used to kill microorganisms or to stop them from growing and multiplying. They are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine to treat a wide variety of infectious diseases.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) refers to the ability of microorganisms to withstand antimicrobial treatments. The overuse or misuse of antibiotics has been linked to the emergence and spread of microorganisms which are resistant to them, rendering treatment ineffective and posing a serious risk to public health. A well known example of a bacterium that has acquired resistance to multiple antibiotics is Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
As of this writing, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has killed more than two million people worldwide and many intensive care units had been overwhelmed with patients presenting with respiratory distress.
Health care workers are at a higher risk of exposure than the rest of the population and in Europe, many caregivers have been infected. In a Chinese survey comparing non-medical health workers and medical health workers during the epidemic, the latter had a higher prevalence of insomnia, anxiety and depression.
Burnout syndrome (BOS), another kind of epidemic, has become a matter of concern for doctors. 62% of French anaesthesia residents (AR) had shown signs of burnout in a previous French study and among them, many had shown signs of depression.Several recent studies have found an increased level of burnout in health care professionals exposed to the pandemic. At the opposite, some studies found that burnout level could be lower in physicians who actively fought with the virus.
Faced with the huge burden imposed on critical care, the main objective of this cross-sectional, national survey was to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on French residents’ mental health. Secondary objectives were to measure burnout in this at-risk population and to explore whether the pandemic could explain part of this burnout.